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 •  Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones)
 •  Gwendolyn Brooks
 •  Lucille Clifton
 •  Rita Dove
 •  W.E.B. Du Bois
 •  Frances Ellen Watkins Harper,
 •  Frederick Douglass
 •  Langston Hughes
 •  Zora Neale Hurston
 •  Ntozake Shange
 •  Jean Toomer
 •  Phillis Wheatley
 •  Maya Angelou
 •  Ralph Ellison
 •  Toni Morrison
 •  Sojouner Truth
 •  Paul Dunbar
 •  Alice Walker
 •  Lorraine Hansberry
 •  Richard Wright
 •  Audre Lorde
African American
African-American Literature Writers, Projects, Works   Suggest a Link
The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive (includes a variety of primary texts by Chesnutt, numerous reviews, and bibliographical information)(Stepahnie P. Browner, Berea C., Berea, KY)
African American Women Writers of Color (Voices from the Gaps)
Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou Discussion Forum 
Maya Angelou: A Bibliography of Literary Criticism (Jay Brandes, Troy State U.)
Maya Angelou Links and Resources (Dept. of English, U. of Cincinnati)
Maya Angelou: Teacher Resource File (Inez Ramsey, James Madison U.)
Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones)
Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) Page (Michael Borshuk)
Amiri Baraka, "Minton's" (1962) (Michael Borshuk)
Gwendolyn Brooks
Gwendolyn Brooks (Academy of American Poets) Bibliography and links, including link to audiofile of Brooks reading
Gwendolyn Brooks (D.H. Melhem, Heath Anthology of American Literature)
Lucille Clifton
Lucille Clifton (Academy of American Poets) Bibliography and links, including links to audiofiles of Clifton reading "Cutting Greens" and "Homage to My Hips") (Academy of American Poets)
Lucille Clifton (bibliography and links) (A.Grischkowsky, H. Hemmen, and J. Schindler, U. Minnesota)
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass Museum and Cultural Center
Frederick Douglass Museum and Cultural Center  
Frederick Douglass Chronology 
Frederick Douglass Photo gallery 
Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
Homepage of Frederick Douglass National Historic Site (National Park Service)
Narrative of the Life of an American Slave (UPenn gopher)
Sandra Thomas, Frederick Douglass: "Abolitionist/Editor" (biography)
Rita Dove
"Lady Freedom Among Us" (UVA etext)
Rita Dove Page 
Rita Dove (Academy of American Poets)
Paul Dunbar
Paul Laurence Dunbar Homepage (T. Columbus, U. of Dayton) Includes biography, realaudio readings of Dunbar's poetry, images, and links.
Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) (D. Campbell, Gonzaga State U.) Includes links to many works on line.
Paul Laurence Dunbar Digital Text Collection (Wright State U Library) "provides access to over two hundred poems"
Ralph Ellison
Ralph Ellison Webliography (Claude Potts, UCLA) Includes chronology and extensive bibliography
Teacher's Guide to Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man (includes questions, exercises, and assignments) (B. Allen / Vintage Books)
Lorraine Hansberry
Concordance to A Raisin in the Sun (Iowa State U.)
Lorraine Hansberry (Voices from the Gaps, U Minnesota)
Teacher's Guide to Lorraine Hansberry's Raisin in the Sun (B. Allen, Vintage Books)
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper,
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (Voices from the Gaps, U Minnesota)
Photograph (Manuscripts and Rare Books Library, U Virginia)
Atlanta offering : poems (Humanities Text Initiative, U Michigan)
Poems (Electronic Text Center, U Virginia)
Sketches of Southern Life (Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers)
Title page of Iola Leroy, Or Shadows Uplifted (Manuscripts and Rare Books Library, U Virginia)
Langston Hughes
General Resources
Brief Biography of Langston Hughes (Nick Evans and David Liss)
It's a Hughes Thang!!!! (Michele Maynard, U. Texas, Austin)
Langston Hughes Community Library & Cultural Center (Queens, NY) 
Langston Hughes Page (The Poetry Archives)
Langston Hughes Page (Epistrophy: Jazz in 20th Century Literature)
Langston Hughes (Academy of American Poets) Includes audiofile of
Langston Hughes Page (History Dept., Hanover C.)
The Poetry of Langston Hughes Teacher Cyberguide (SCORE, San Diego County Office of Education)
Photograph of Langston Hughes by Carl Van Vechten (1939) (Smithsonian)
"Advice," "Island," "Beale Street," "Dream Dust" (David Chanlin)
"Be-Bop Boys" (Epistrophy: Jazz in 20th Century Literature)
"Jazzonia" (Nick Evans and David Liss)
"Justice" and "Still Here" (David Aaron Kurtenbach)
"Song for Billie Holiday" (Epistrophy: Jazz in 20th Century Literature)
"The South" (Crystal Kile)
Zora Neale Hurston
A Compendium of Research on the Novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (Rouzie, Ohio U) Includes annotated bibliography and reception history
Rita Hooks (St. Petersburg Junior C.), "Conjured Into Being: Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God 
Zora Neale Hurston (Voices from the Gaps, U Minnesota)
Zora Neale Hurston: Background (Lauren Schiff, U. Virginia)
Audre Lorde
Writing and Resistance Criticism: Audre Lord (Jody Kerr, Arizona State U)
Henrietta Cordelia Ray, Poems (1910) (New York Public Library)
Ntozake Shange
Ntozake Shange (Henry Holt & Co., Inc.)
Writing and Resistance Web Links: Ntozake Shange (Jody Kerr, Arizona State U)
Toni Morrison
Anniina's Toni Morrison Page (Anniina Jokinen)
Web Page of Toni Morrison's Beloved (English 316K, U. Texas, Austin)
Jean Toomer
Jean Toomer (Academy of American Poets)
The Jean Toomer Pages (Scott W. Williams, State U of New York, Buffalo)
Sojouner Truth
Narrative of Sojourner Truth (1850) (Celebration of Women Writers)
Sojourner Truth Institute 
Alice Walker
Alice Walker (Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color, U Minnesota)
Anniina's Alice Walker Page (Anniina Jokinen)
W.E.B. Du Bois
"The Freedmen's Bureau" 
"A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South" 
"Of the Training of Black Men" 
"Strivings of the Negro People" 
The Souls of Black Folk  (Bartleby Library)
"Woman Suffrage" (K. Kish Sklar and T. Dublin, SUNY Binghamton)
W.E.B. Du Bois Papers
Homepage (Special Collections and Archives, W.E.B. Du Bois Library, U. Massachusetts Amherst)
The Achievement of W.E.B. Du Bois (biography)
A W.E.B. Du Bois Chronology 
Phillis Wheatley
Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and a Slave. Dedicated to the Friends of the Africans. (U North Carolina, Chapel Hill Libraries)
Phillis Wheatley Page (The Poetry Archives)
Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773) (Project Gutenberg)
Richard Wright
Richard Wright - Black Boy (info on TV production; includes background material) (Mississippi Educational Television and the Independent Television Service)
Richard Wright Page
Homepage (Richard Hancuff, George Washington U.)
Richard Wright Bibliography 

VoS is woven by Alan Liu and a development team
in the U.California, Santa Barbara, English Department.
Contact: ayliu@english.ucsb.edu — To suggest links for inclusion in VoS, please use the "Suggest a Link" button on the relevant category page. To offer feedback on the site, please use the feedback form.
Guide: What the Title of VoS Means Navigating and Bookmarking VoS Contributing Links Helping Edit VoS Technical Specs Credits

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